Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. It is bordered by the United States of America both to the south and to the west (Alaska). By area, Canada is the second largest country in the world. Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.

Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area, after Russia. It has the longest border with water (coastline) of any country in the world. It is next to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans.

It is made up of ten provinces and three territories, and has six time zones. It extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces. In the north there are three territories, stretching between Alaska and Greenland. Four of the five Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) are shared between Canada and the United States (Lake Michigan is in the USA), and they make up 16% of the Earth's fresh water.

By Ana Herrera, Paula Mendaro, Cristina Díaz and Lucía San Miguel.


The immense size of Canada can experience a wide range of climates from warm, moist Pacific coast and the cold and foggy Atlantic, north to the islands of Arctic ice .

  • Spring (March to May): Usually rains during this period. The days are longer and warmer, but nights remain cool. The plants begin to grow, but the trees remain bare until the end of the season. 
  • Summer (June to August / September): The climate is warm and temperatures can reach 30°C. In the central region (Ontario and Quebec ), and especially near the Great Lakes, the weather turns wet and there may be thunderstorms. In most regions, this season marks the season of mosquitoes and, in rural areas, and to the north of the country, the era of black flies. 
  • Autumn (September to November): Season characterized by the change of color of the foliage of the trees, which turn from green to red, yellow and brown, before falling to disappear completely in winter. The weather is cool to cold progressing rapidly. This season usually occur the first frost. It rains and the days begin to get shorter. The first snowfall usually occurs in November, but sometimes earlier, in some regions of the country. 
  • Winter (December to February / March): The Canadian winter is the dreaded season. It´s characterized by very low temperatures and frequent snowfalls. From December to mid-March, the temperature is below 0°C during the day and nights are very cold. Winds can also give the impression that it is even colder. In the north, temperatures are cooler and winter days are short.


Canada is a multicultural country with many influences from different places. The main traditions of this country are:

-The winter carnival:

In winter it takes place in the Canadian city of Québec a carnival full of parades, music, dancing, ice sculptures and a large snow slide.

-The Winterlude:
 It is a festival that takes place in Ottawa to celebrate the winter and the snow.

-The Caravan:
It takes place in Toronto, it’s a party where all the cultures share their manifestations, in a celebration with dancing and ethnic foods.

-The festival ''Jazz of Montreal'': 
This festival is one of the most important festival of jazz music in the world. There are many concerts and important figures playing outdoors.

-The Stampede of Calgary:
It is celebrated in the city of Calgary, where rodeos and cars races are made. It is a tribute to the culture of the Old West. This show of 10 days, attracts many spectators and the best cowboys continent.

-Christmas traditions:
In the Canadian Christmas it is traditional to eat during the holidays a sweet called "Taffy Pull".
Christmas is also known for its Christmas carols.
It’s  also tradition to put a red ornament on the tree.


English and French are the two official languages of Canada. According to figures of the population census of 2011, 75% of the population speaks English (24.8 million Canadians) and 23% speak French (7.7 million people).

It is also estimated that English is the mother tongue of 58% of Canadians (19.1 million people), and the French the 22% of the population (7, 2 million).
Most French-speaking Canadians live mainly in Quebec, the only province where French is the official language. New Brunswickes the only province that stands out as the only officially bilingual country.

Some foreign languages spoken in Canada are:
Punjabi 1.3% (460,000 people)
Chinese: 1.28% (441,000 people)
Spanish: 1.24% (439,000 people)
Italian: 1.23% (438,000 people)


Canada has several national symbols: works, hymns, events, institutions, activities and people that have special meaning for the nation.

The national Canada Day is July 1. It is also known as "Dominion Day" and commemorates the formation of the union of British North America provinces in a federation under the name of Canada.

The Canadian symbols are:

The national flag of Canada is a rectangle, twice as long as wide, red and white, the official colors of Canada, appointed by King George V in 1921. It has two red bars at the ends and in the middle a white box with a stylized red maple leaf of 11 points.

The shield
The coat of arms of Canada was officially proclaimed on November 21, 1921, by King George V. The current design was adopted in 1994 and 1921 differs from the original by including the ribbon with the motto of the Order of Canada.
The National anthem
The national song is titled "O Canada" and was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada on July 1, 1980, 100 years after it was first sung on June 24, 1880, during the national congress of the French-Canadian (Congrès national des Canadiens-Français), at the same time they also celebrated the Day of San Juan Bautista.

Maple Leaf
Maple Leaf is one of the most important and famous national symbols. It is present in the national flag and the collective imagery is an accurate representation of the nation.

The Beaver
The March 24, 1975, the beaver, the largest rodent in Canada, was proclaimed a symbol of Canadian sovereignty and surrender tribute to trade in beaver pelts that flourished in the late 1600s and contributed greatly to strengthening Canada and US colony of France, first in England and then.